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ISO/TS16949体系认证五大工具,SPC控制理论运用于进货检验

发布时间:2011-10-16 12:01 点击次数:

ISO/TS16949体系认证五大工具,SPC控制理论运用于进货检验
ISO / TS16949 system certification five tools, SPC control theory was applied to the incoming inspection
随着时代的发展,很多企业都实施了日供货,以减少库存,从而降低库存成本。这样的供货体系给进货检验带来了很大的压力,不论是采用GB2828抽样管理办法,还是采用百分比抽样(虽然不太合理,但很多公司仍然在采用),样本量大的检验,必然造成进货检验员人力资源的短缺。如果不增加人员来完成规定的抽样,检验员会人为降低样本量,或匆匆忙忙检查,以完成本次检验(检验不完,要停工,要追究责任)。长期以来,进货检验不但压力大,还给企业带来了质量隐患,存在着很大的风险。
With the development of the times, many enterprises are implemented in the supplier, in order to reduce inventory, reduce inventory cost. The supply system to the incoming inspection to bring very great pressure, whether using GB2828 sampling approach to management, or the use of percentage sampling ( although not very reasonable, but many companies are still in use ), a large number of samples testing, will inevitably lead to the incoming inspector the shortage of human resources. If you do not increase the staff to complete the prescribed sampling, inspector will artificially reduce the sample volume, or hurry to check, to complete the inspection ( inspection finished, to work, to be held accountable ). Long-term since, incoming inspection is not only pressure, returned to the enterprise has brought quality hidden trouble, there exists great risk.

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      为了缓解这一矛盾,我想到了SPC控制理论,SPC能控制生产过程,为什么就不能控制进货检验过程呢?
In order to alleviate this contradiction, I think of SPC control theory, the SPC can control the production process, why can not control the incoming inspection process?
      设想一下,每一位进货检验员每天检查不同种类配件,按规定的抽样方法,抽取样本,检验样本,记录检测数据,与标准对比,判定样本中多少个不合格,再根据合格判定数判定本批是否合格。每批都采取数据,但未对数据进行统计分析。我们可以将统计过程控制SPC理论用于统计分析。设想方案如下:
Imagine, every incoming inspector daily inspection of different kinds of parts, in accordance with the provisions of the sampling methods, sample, test sample, record test data, and standard comparison, judgment sample in the number of unqualified, then according to the qualification to determine the number of the number of qualified. Each batch is taken to data, but not data for statistical analysis. We can make the statistical process control SPC theory was used for statistical analysis. Tentative plan is as follows: 本文来至于中国质量认证网
      第一步:每个进货检验员根据技术要求确定每个配件的3-5个关键特性尺寸(此尺寸受控,就能保证此配件的质量)。
The first step: each incoming inspector according to the technical requirements for determining each parts of the 3-5 key characteristics of size ( the size of a controlled, can ensure that the quality of parts ).
      第二步:针对这几个关键特性,每批进货随机抽取3-5个配件进行测量(当然正规生产过程是连续采样),并记录数据。
Second step: according to the several key characteristics, each batch of incoming 3-5 randomly selected parts were measured ( of course the regular production process is continuous sampling ), and records data.
      第三步:收集25组数据。
The third step: collected 25 sets of data.
      第四步:根据SPC知识制作控制图。(上下限考虑到风险可适当加严)
Fourth step: according to the SPC knowledge production control chart. ( on the lower limit of considering the risk can be properly tightened )
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      第五步:判断此配件的进货过程(含包装运输)是否稳定。
Step fifth: determine the parts of the purchase process ( including packaging transport ) is stable.
      第六步:稳定以后转入控制用控制图。
The sixth step: stable later transferred to the control chart.
      第七步:以后每批货只需检测3-5个配件的3-5个关键特性尺寸,将平均值和极差打点于控制图(一个关键特性尺寸一张控制图)上,根据点是否出界就可判定本批是否合格。
The seventh step: after each batch of goods only needs to detect the 3-5 parts 3-5 key characteristic size, the average and range management in control chart ( one of the key characteristics of the size of a control chart ), according to whether it can be judged whether the number of qualified.
    这样做的好处:
The advantage of this:
    1、样本量只需3-5个,大大减少了检测时间,弥补了人员不足,检测不完善而造成的风险。同时提高了效率,减少了浪费。 中国质量认证网
In 1, the sample volume is only 3-5, greatly reduce the detection time, make up the shortage of personnel, detection is not perfect and risks. At the same time, improve efficiency, reduce waste.
    2、可监控此配件质量的发展趋势,及早报警,给供方提出将要产生不合格产品的信息。因为等检验再发现不合格,已经晚了。不但影响生产,还会给供方带来运输、返工、返修等消耗费用。
2, monitoring the quality of accessories development trend, early alarm, to the present to produce unqualified products information. Because the test and found not qualified, already late. Not only affect the production, but also to the transport, repair, rework, bring cost.
    3、将运输中造成的缺陷(或变化)也纳入了监控。
In 3, will transport the defects caused ( or change) is also incorporated into the monitoring.
    4、可以和供应商的生产过程控制的SPC做对比,根据控制图的趋势以发现其它未预料到的事情。
In 4, and supplier's production process control SPC do, according to the control diagram of the trend to find other unexpected things.
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     5、必要时双方做MSA测量系统分析,以避免供方检测的合格,而组织自身检测不合格造成的误判;也避免供方的不合格产品,被组织测量合格而误用。
In 5, when necessary, both MSA measurement system analysis, to avoid detection of qualified suppliers, and the organization's own testing unqualified cause miscarriage of justice; and also avoid the unqualified products, are organized measurement qualified and misuse.
     这样做的弊端:
Do malpractice:
     1、因为组间采样不连续(其实就是随机),可能引进了其它影响因素,导致变差增大。这个主要通过加严控制线来减小误判的概率。 
1, because the group sampling and discontinuous ( is actually random ), may introduce other factors, resulted in variable difference increases. This mainly through strict control of line to reduce the error probability.
     2、刚开始做时较复杂,因为需要一段时间数据和经验的积累。一旦监控起来,效果肯定优于其他抽样检验方法。 中国质量认证网
2, just start doing more complex, because of the need for a period of time and the accumulation of experience data. Once the monitoring, effect is better than other method of sampling inspection.
     ISO/TS16949:2009标准中的7.4.3.1款中规定“组织接收统计数据,并对其进行评价”。我想这么做也是可行的。
ISO / TS16949: 2009 standard 7.4.3.1 set out in paragraph" organization receiving statistic data, and its evaluation". I want to do is feasible.
     SPC控制理论运用于进货检验,充分体现了组织对供方的监视,也能促进供方对其制造过程业绩的监视。
SPC control theory was applied to the incoming inspection, fully embodies the organization on the monitor, but also can promote the supplier to the performance of their manufacturing processes.

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