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质量认证 全面质量管理的常用七种工具 中鸿ISO9000认证咨询

发布时间:2015-03-07 20:36 点击次数:

质量认证 全面质量管理的常用七种工具 中鸿ISO9000认证咨询
Quality certification of overall quality management of seven kinds of commonly used tools in Hong ISO9000 certification
所谓全面质量管理常用七种工具,就是在开展全面质量管理活动中,用于收集和分析质量数据,分析和确定质量问题,控制和改进质量水平的常用七种方法。这些方法不仅科学,而且实用,作为班组长应该首先学习和掌握它们,并带领工人应用到生产实际中。
The so-called comprehensive quality management of seven kinds of commonly used tools, is to carry out a comprehensive quality management activities, for quality data collection and analysis, analysis and identify quality problems, control and improve the quality level of the seven kinds of commonly used methods. These methods not only scientific, and practical, as the team leader should first learn and master them, and lead the workers into practice.
1.统计分析表法和措施计划表法
1 statistical analysis table method and measures of schedule
质量管理讲究科学性,一切凭数据说话。因此对生产过程中的原始质量数据的统计分析十分重要,为此必须根据本班组,本岗位的工作特点设计出相应的表格。
Quality management, pay attention to scientific sex, all of their data to speak. Therefore, statistics of the original data quality in the production process of the analysis is very important, so we must according to the team, the corresponding form work design features of this post.
2.排列图法
2 array diagram method
排列图法是找出影响产品质量主要因素的一种有效方法。
Arrangement diagram method is an effective method to find out the main factors affecting the quality of products.
制作排列图的步骤:
Production arrangement diagram steps:
1)收集数据,即在一定时期里收集有关产品质量问题的数据。例如,可收集1个月或3个月或半年等时期里的废品或不合格品的数据。
1) to collect data, i.e. data collected about the quality of the products in a certain period of time. For example, collect 1 months or 3 months or half a year period of scrap or nonconforming product data.
2)进行分层,列成数据表,即将收集到的数据资料,按不同的问题进行分层处理,每一层也可称为一个项目;然后统计一下各类问题(或每一项目)反复出现的次数(即频数);按频数的大小次序,从大到小依次列成数据表,作为计算和作图时的基本依据。
2) were stratified into data tables, columns, is to collect data, stratified according to different problems, each layer can also be called a project; then statistics about various problems (or per project) the number of repeated (i.e., frequency); according to the frequency of the order of size, from the big in order to small columns into a table of data, as a basis for calculation and drawing of the.
3)进行计算,即根据第(3)栏的数据,相应地计算出每类问题在总问题中的百分比,计入第(4)栏,然后计算出累计百分数,计入第(5)栏。
3) were calculated, according to article (3) column data, calculated the percentage in the total of each class of problems in question, is included in the article (4) column, and then calculate the cumulative percentage, included in the article (5) bar.
4)作排列图。即根据上表数据进行作图。需要注意的是累计百分率应标在每一项目的右侧,然后从原点开始,点与点之间以直线连接,从而作出帕累托曲线。
4) arrangement diagram. Namely, mapping based on a table of data. Need to pay attention to is the cumulative percentage shall be marked on each project on the right side, and then start from the origin, between points are connected by a straight line, thus making the Pareto curve.
3.因果分析图法
3 causal analysis diagram
因果分析图又叫特性要因图。按其形状,有人又叫它为树枝图或鱼刺图。它是寻找质量问题产生原因的一种有效工具。
Causal analysis diagram is also called the characteristic diagram. According to the shape, some people also called it as the branch diagrams or fishbone diagram. It is an effective tool to find the causes of quality problems.
画因果分析图的注意事项:
Note chart of causal analysis:
1)影响产品质量的大原因,通常从五个大方面去分析,即人、机器、原材料、加工方法和工作环境。每个大原因再具体化成若干个中原因,中原因再具体化为小原因,越细越好,直到可以采取措施为止。
1 big reasons) influence the quality of products, usually to analysis from five aspects, namely people, machines, raw materials, processing methods and working environment. Each big reasons into several more specific reason, reason again specific to small reasons, the more detailed the better, until we can take measures so far.
2)讨论时要充分发挥技术民主,集思广益。别人发言时,不准打断,不开展争论。各种意见都要记录下来。
2) the discussion to give full play to the technological democracy, benefit by mutual discussion. Others speak, not interrupted, not to launch a debate. Various opinions shall be recorded.
4.分层法
4 hierarchical method
分层法又叫分类法,是分析影响质量(或其他问题)原因的方法。我们知道,如果把很多性质不同的原因搅在一起,那是很难理出头绪来的。其办法是把收集来的数据按照不同的目的加以分类,把性质相同,在同一生产条件下收集的数据归在一起。这样,可使数据反映的事实更明显、更突出,便于找出问题,对症下药。
A hierarchical method is also called classification method, is to analyze the impact of quality (or other problems) reason method. We know that, if the reason many properties of different mixing together, it is difficult to sum up. The solution is to put the collected data according to different purpose of classification, the same properties, collected at the same conditions of production data together. In this way, can make the data reflect the fact is more obvious, more prominent, easy to find out problems, an antidote against the disease.
企业中处理数据常按以下原则分类:
Data processing enterprises often according to the following principles classification:
按不同时间分:如按不同的班次、不同的日期进行分类。
According to the different time points: such as the shift, a different date classification.
按操作人员分:如按新、老工人、男工、女工、不同工龄分类。
According to the operating personnel: according to the new, the old workers, men, women, different length of service classification.
按使用设备分:如按不同的机床型号,不同的工夹具等进行分类。
By the use of equipment such as: according to the different type of machine, various fixture classification.
按操作方法分:如按不同的切削用量、温度、压力等工作条件进行分类。
According to the operation method: according to the different cutting parameters, such as temperature, pressure and other working conditions of classification.
按原材料分: 如按不同的供料单位不同的进料时间,不同的材料成份等进行分类。
According to the original materials: such as feeding unit according to different feeding time, different material composition classification.
按不同的检测手段分类。
According to the classification of a variety of detection means.
其它分类:如按不同的工厂、使用单位、使用条件、气候条件等进行分类。
Other categories: such as according to different factories, the use of units, use conditions, climatic conditions such as classification.
总之,因为我们的目的是把不同质的问题分清楚。便于分析问题找出原因。所以,分类方法多种多样,并无任何硬性规定。
In short, because our goal is to not homogeneous problem clearly. To facilitate analysis of problems. Therefore, classification methods varied, there is no hard and fast rules.
5.直方图法
5 histogram method
直方图(Histogram)是频数直方图的简称。它是用一系列宽度相等、高度不等的长方形表示数据的图。长方形的宽度表示数据范围的间隔,长方形的高度表示在给定间隔内的数据数。
Histogram (Histogram) is referred to as the frequency histogram. It is said that the map data with a series of equal width, height of unequal rectangular. The width of the rectangle representing data range interval, rectangular highly expressed in a given interval data.
6.控制图法
6 control chart method
控制图法是以控制图的形式,判断和预报生产过程中质量状况是否发生波动的一种常用的质量控制统计方法。它能直接监视生产过程中的过程质量动态,具有稳定生产,保证质量、积极预防的作用。
Control chart is based on control chart form, a commonly used statistical quality control methods whether the quality condition judgment and forecast the production process occurs fluctuations. It can process quality dynamic direct monitoring of the production process, with stable production, quality assurance, active prevention function.
7.散布图法
7 scatter diagram method
散布图法,是指通过分析研究两种因素的数据之间的关系,来控制影响产品质量的相关因素的一种有效方法。
Scatter diagram method, refers to the relationship between two kinds of factors through the study and analysis of the data, an effective method to control the influence factors related to the quality of the product..
在生产实际中,往往是一些变量共处于一个统一体中,它们相互联系、相互制约,在一定条件下又相互转化。
In the actual production, often is some variables coexist in a single entity, they contact and restrict mutually, under certain conditions and mutual conversion.
有些变量之间存在着确定性的关系,它们之间的关系,可以用函数关系来表达,如园的面积和它的半径关系:S=πr2 ;有些变量之间却存在着相关关系,即这些变量之间既有关系,但又不能由一个变量的数值精确地求出另一个变量的数值。将这两种有关的数据列出,用点子打在坐标图上,然后观察这两种因素之间的关系。这种图就称为散布图或相关图。
A deterministic relationship exists between certain variables, the relationship between them, can be used to express the function relationship, such as the garden area and its radius relations: S= PI R2; some of these variables are relationship exists between these variables, that is both the relationship, but not by the value of a variable exactly solved the value of another variable. These two related data are listed, with the ideas in the coordinates of the map, and then observe the relationship between these two factors. This graph is called a scatter diagram or correlation diagram.
质量认证 全面质量管理的常用七种工具 中鸿ISO9000认证咨询
Quality certification of overall quality management of seven kinds of commonly used tools in Hong ISO9000 certification
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